What is bladder cancer?

What is bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancer types in urinary system, arising from mucous membrane of urinary bladder. Epithelial cells of mucous membrane of urinary bladder are also named uroepithelial cells, from which develops urothelioma, a most common malignancy takes up to 90-95% in all kinds of bladder cancer. Other rare bladder cancers include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

What symptoms of bladder cancer present?

Blood in urine. Bloody urine mostly occurs as intermittent or throughout the whole process of disease. It can also appear at the onset or by the end of a case. Some patients would have blood clots or slough-like tissues in urine.

Irritation of bladder. A patient would present the symptoms of urination frequency and urgency if a malignancy occurs in trigonum vesicae, or the lesion spreads or infection happens.

Urinary obstruction. The bigger tumor located in bladder neck and blood clots can arouse dribble urination or even urine retention. Tumor infiltration in ureteric orifice causing blockage in upper urinary tract would develop lumbar pain, hydronephrosis and damage of kidney functions.

Metastases. Pains in bladder, urethrovaginal fistula, edema in lower extremities, etc appear when advanced stage cancer invades tissues or organs around bladder and pelvic lymph nodes.

Detection of bladder cancer

Cystoscope, through which can directly find the location, size, quantity, shape and infiltration extent of cancer. Biopsy should also perform when having this examination.

CT scan. It can find the tumor and swelling lymph nodes in an accuracy of 80%.

Ultrasound B. It can detect the size, location and infiltration degree in mucosa when a patient is having full bladder, a status that the mucosa of bladder wall is fully extending.

Ray contrast examination. Through it can a doctor know the bladder is full or empty and the infiltration condition. Combining with pyelography and ureterography, hydronephrosis and infiltration condition of ureter can be confirmed.

Staging of urinary bladder cancer

Staging of urinary bladder cancer
  • Stage 0: Cancer cells are found only on the inner lining of the bladder.
  • Stage I: Cancer cells have proliferated to the layer beyond the inner lining of the urinary bladder but not to the muscles of the urinary bladder.
  • Stage II: Cancer cells have proliferated to the muscles in the bladder wall but not to the fatty tissue that surrounds the urinary bladder.
  • Stage III: Cancer cells have invaded to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder and to the prostate gland, vagina, or uterus, but not to the lymph nodes or other organs.
  • Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes, pelvic or abdominal wall, and/or other organs.
  • Recurrent: Cancer has recurred in the urinary bladder or in another nearby organ after having been treated.

What is the incidence of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer accounts for 3% of all malignant tumors all around the world and over 350,000 people are diagnosed of it each year. It happens in all ages but tends to occur within the age range of 50-60. Moreover, the incidence goes up as age increases and would be 3-4 times higher for male to develop bladder cancer than female.

Bladder cancer is caused by interaction of multiple factors. Smoking and occupational contact of aromatic amine are the main known contributors to urinary bladder cancer. There are other related factors of it.

Carcinogenic substance in drinking water. Taking the water with chloride left through chlorine sterilization would increase the risk of getting bladder cancer.

Diseases of urethra. Long-term and chronic irritation in urothelium or carcinogenic substance from body metabolism increases in urine would result in epitheliosis of urinary tract that cancerization occurs.

Drugs. Take massive doses of a painkiller named phenacetin would increase the risk of bladder cancer too.

How to treat bladder cancer?

Detection of bladder cancer

Surgery. The most proper surgery method should be chosen according to pathological diagnosis and general physical condition of a patient, and these methods include:1) Transurethral incision of bladder tumor2) Radical cystectomy .

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Both of them can be taken as assistant therapies. Elective radiotherapy and chemotherapy before or after surgery can help to improve the treatment effect and the living quality of a patient.

TCM (Traditional Chinese medicine). It can apply throughout the whole treatment for bladder cancer patient. No matter used singly or combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it can take the effect of suppressing tumor and improving patient’s living quality and so on.

Nursing methods of bladder cancer

Diet care

  • A bladder cancer patient should take more fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Have diets with high protein, such as eggs, milk and fish and so on.
  • Adjust the diets according to patient flavor, but spicy food or the diets which are hard for digestion should be forbidden.

Post-operative care

  • Keep the ward clean and the air fresh.
  • Prevent from getting infection and improve the immunity of patient.
  • Family should always support the patient to help him eliminate the negative emotions.

Multidisciplinary team for bladder cancer patients

A multidisciplinary team composed of surgeons, pathologists, radiation cancer experts, minimally invasive oncologists, nurses for cancer nursing and interpreters carries out specialized consultation according to symptoms and conditions of patients with bladder cancer and then gives treatment plans that are most applicable to the patients, in order to greatly improve the therapeutic effect for bladder cancer patient.

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If you still have questions about Bladder Cancer treatment, please click the following links or have online consultation with our experts to get detailed answers.

What are the treatment options for Bladder Cancer patients?

Which kind of treatment has fewer side effects?

Different treatment options for different stages of Bladder Cancer

Prevention and treatment for metastatic Bladder Cancer.

How to improve the survival time and living quality of Bladder Cancer patients?

Voice out your inquiries to online medical professionals and you shall be provided with satisfying answers.

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How We Treat Cancer?

Interventional Therapy

Interventional Therapy is a new substitute of traditional chemotherapy, which means that a physician introduces instruments such as needles or catheters (long, thin tubes) into the body through tiny(1-2 mm) incisions in the skin. The instruments are then guided by an imaging technique called fluoroscopy to the cancer tumor. In this way, the physician can deliver cancer medicine directly to the tumor.more info

Cryotherapy Therapy

Cryotherapy Therapy, also known as “Argon-Helium Knife Cryotherapy”, is a new substitute of traditional physical therapy. Practically speaking it is “extreme cold + extreme heat” cancer treatment. Generally, a minimum of 10-15 minutes is required to achieve an extreme analgesic (pain relieving) effect while lowering the temperature to the injured area, thus reducing the metabolic rate and swelling associated with tissue injury.more info

Particle Knife

Particle Knife is a new substitute of traditional radiation therapy. With the help of computer Treatment Planning System (TPS), radioactive particles will be implanted into tumors. The particles which release γ-rays can continuously kill tumor and cause destruction targeting tumor cells. With time, the radiation amount would accumulate to be large enough to destroy the DNA double strands of tumor cells.more info


Medical Team

Our medical team includes surgeons, radiology oncologists, medical oncologists, nurses, nutritionists, accompanied by interpreters and related health experts; we shall be dedicated to provide you a convenient and high-quality service.

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