What is endometrial cancer?

What is endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is the malignant tumor happened in endometrial gland, which is the one of the three malignant tumors of female and ranks 7% of total female cancers, 20-30% of genital tract malignant cancer. Endometrial cancer can happen in any age, but the high risky age is among 58-61, nearly 50-70% is happened after menostasia. Recent years, there is an increasing trend for endometrial cancer and even exceeds that of cervical cancer. The 5 years survival period for advanced stage endometrial cancer patients is about 25-30%, and the recurrence of endometrial cancer is the main factor that influences the 5 years survival rate.

What are the causes of endometrial cancer?

By now the medical field still cannot define the exact causes of endometrial cancer. Generally it is believed that multi-factors have contributed the occurrence of endometrial cancer, which include: cervical erosion, frequent sexual behavior, disordered sex life, ignoring sexual behavior cleaning as well as menstruation, redundant prepuce of sex partner, herpes type II virus infection as well as HPV infection, venereal disease, mantle bacteria infection, etc.

The symptoms of endometrial cancer:

endometrial cancer

There are no obvious symptoms in early stage, and it can only be detected during extensive survey or gynecologic examination for other reasons. Once symptoms appear, then they may manifest as follows:

Vaginal bleeding: this is the earliest and most common symptom for endometrial cancer, and it often manifests irregular bleeding, or heavy or light, and females before menopause often have heavy menstrual blood volume and it will last for a long time; after menopause, it often manifests as vaginal bleeding;

Vaginal apocenosis: the falling off of endometrial cancer tissue necrosis can cause effusion to be drained through vagina; and the effusion manifests like rice-water mixed with blood or purulence companied with evil smelling;

Pain: advanced stage patients often bear great pain which is caused by tumor pressing nerves and can be occurred at the position of lumbosacral area, hypogastrium or even extend to the leg;

Advanced stage patients can touch the enlarged womb under the hypogastrium, and it can cause swelling and pain to lower extremity or other systemic exhaustion like anaemia, emaciation, fervescence, dyscrasia, etc.

Auxiliary examinations can be carried out as per the above-mentioned symptoms to diagnose endometrial cancer, therefore, females shall pay attention to any changes occurred to menstruation and the characters of vaginal secretions. Once certain symptoms appear, go to hospital for examination timely.

Diagnosis methods for endometrial cancer:

Segmented diagnostic curettage. Usually first curettage of cervical canals, then followed by uterine cavity examination, next followed by scoraping endomembrane inside the uterine cavity; after identifying the bottles of samples, send them for pathological examination. The result of pathological examination shall be regarded as the foundation of diagnosing endometrial cancer;

Hysteroscopy. It can directly observe the growth status of endometrial foci and sample suspect foci for biopsy or pathological examination;

Uterine cavity pipette. Apply specially-made uterine cavity sipper or brush to place inside the uterine cavity and take suction of secretions for cytological examination, or for screening;

B ultrasound. It can indicate the degree of muscular layer invasion.

Staging of endometrial cancer:

If it is definitely diagnosed that there is cancer, doctors shall further get to know the condition so that make out the most suitable treatment plan. The principle for judging stages of tumor relies on whether the tumor has invaded to adjacent tissues; whether there is metastasis, if there is, try to determine which parts it has spread to.

Treatment methods of endometrial cancer:

Stage Treatment
I & II

The common treatments are open surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, for those who can’t tolerate or do not want to take common sugery, the preferred treatment is minimally invasive treatment, including cryotherapy, interventional therapy, microwave ablation, combined therapy of chinese medicine and western medicine, etc for endometrial cancer stage 1 or stage 2.

III

In endometrial cancer stage 3, it is good to take minimally invasive treatment to remove the cancer cells because it only brings 2mm trauma, lesser side effects than chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Comprehensive treatment is better than the single treatment because cancer has spread to lymph nodes in middle of chest. Single treatment might not well meet patient’s need to kill the cancer cells to the greatest extent. Taking cryotherapy or microwave destroys the localized tumor  and interventional therapy helps kills the residual cancer cells spread to other  organs.

IV

In CANCER STAGE 4 , the tumor has spread to the other parts of body (metastasis). Open surgery is not effective as a form of treatment. Rather, minimally invasive treatment becomes another good option in endometrial cancer stage 4. Cryotherapy, microwave, interventional therapy, nanoknife therapy is applicable to treat endometrical cancer stage 4 and doctor team will first discuss patient’s condition and give a recommended treatment plan according to their physical condition, willing and other factors.

The stages of endometrial cancer are:

  • 0 Degree: just adenomatoid hyperplasia occurs, that is cancer in situ;
  • I Degree: cancer is just limited within the uterine;
  • II Degree: cancer has invaded to cervix;
  • III Degree: cancer has spread outside of uterine (including vagina), but not exceeding lesser pelvis;
  • IV Degree: cancer has exceeded out the lesser pelvis or obviously invaded bladder or rectum mucosa.

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If you still have questions about Endometrial Cancer treatment, please click the following links or have online consultation with our experts to get detailed answers.

What are the treatment options for Endometrial Cancer patients?

Which kind of treatment has fewer side effects?

Different treatment options for different stages of Endometrial Cancer

Prevention and treatment for metastatic Endometrial Cancer.

How to improve the survival time and living quality of Endometrial Cancer patients?

Voice out your inquiries to online medical professionals and you shall be provided with satisfying answers.

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How We Treat Cancer?

Interventional Therapy

Interventional Therapy is a new substitute of traditional chemotherapy, which means that a physician introduces instruments such as needles or catheters (long, thin tubes) into the body through tiny(1-2 mm) incisions in the skin. The instruments are then guided by an imaging technique called fluoroscopy to the cancer tumor. In this way, the physician can deliver cancer medicine directly to the tumor.more info

Cryotherapy Therapy

Cryotherapy Therapy, also known as “Argon-Helium Knife Cryotherapy”, is a new substitute of traditional physical therapy. Practically speaking it is “extreme cold + extreme heat” cancer treatment. Generally, a minimum of 10-15 minutes is required to achieve an extreme analgesic (pain relieving) effect while lowering the temperature to the injured area, thus reducing the metabolic rate and swelling associated with tissue injury.more info

Particle Knife

Particle Knife is a new substitute of traditional radiation therapy. With the help of computer Treatment Planning System (TPS), radioactive particles will be implanted into tumors. The particles which release γ-rays can continuously kill tumor and cause destruction targeting tumor cells. With time, the radiation amount would accumulate to be large enough to destroy the DNA double strands of tumor cells.more info


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