What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor or lesion that occurs in the prostate gland. Prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland enclosed by a capsule and situated below the urinary bladder. It produces prostatic secretion which forms part of semen.

Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate gland turn malignant, i.e. uncontrolled growth, and forms a lump. This cancer grows out of the prostate capsule and invades surrounding tissue like seminal vesicles, bladder neck. It can also spread to the lymph glands in the pelvis. It also often spreads via the blood stream to the backbone.

What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?

Early stage prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic, which means that there are no obvious symptoms for early stage prostate cancer. Early stage prostate cancer can be detected only by examinations and lab tests.

The following are symptoms of advanced stage prostate cancer:

  • Difficulty in passing urine due to obstruction to the passage of urine;
  • Back pain due to bone metastases (which means the cancer spread to the bone);
  • Weakness or swelling of lower limbs due to obstruction of the lymphatic channels.

How is prostate cancer diagnosed?

Biopsy;A biopsy with using a special needle called core needle is inserted into the prostate gland. In this procedure, an ultrasound scan guides the needle. The tissue obtained is examined under the microscope to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Other important investigations are:

CT or MRI scans of the pelvis;These two scans will reveal the extent of the spread – capsular invasion, invasion of adjacent tissue or the lymph nodes.

Radioisotope bone scan;It helps to detect if the cancer has spread to the bone. When prostate cancer spreads, bone is the most common place it goes to.

Two parameters are used to determine the severity of prostate cancer.

  • Stage measures the extent of spread:
Stage Extent of Spread
I Localised
–cancer is still in the prostate gland
II Locally invasive
– capsular invasion
–invasion of adjacent organs such as seminal vesicles
– spread of pelvic lymph organs
III Metastatic
– cancer is widespread, accompanied with bone involvement

How is prostate cancer treated?

In recent years, individual treatments are recommended more and more, which means that treatments are given according to every individual patient’s condition. Doctors will evaluate their condition fully before giving proper suggestions.

Besides surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients can also consider treatments like seed implantation, cyrotheraoy, radiofrequency ablation, immunotherapy, Chinese medicine etc.

  Treatment
Very small and well differentiated cancer Surveillance especially for those over 70.
Localised cancer Prostatectomy: major surgery to remove prostate and adjacent seminal vesicles.Alternative: interventional therapy, nanoknife, targeted therapy, etc.
Locally invasive cancer Combination of Chinese medicine and western medicine, interventional therapy, targeted therapy, green chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy etc.
Metastatic cancer Besides surgery and other related treatments, the prescription of drugs may also used to modify hormone levels in the body. When the disease becomes resistant to hormone therapy, green chemotherapy or radiotherapy and so on may be used to treat patients to improve the quality of life.

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If you still have questions about Prostate Cancer treatment, please click the following links or have online consultation with our experts to get detailed answers.

What are the treatment options for Prostate Cancer patients?

Which kind of treatment has fewer side effects?

Different treatment options for different stages of Prostate Cancer

Prevention and treatment for metastatic Prostate Cancer.

How to improve the survival time and living quality of Prostate Cancer patients?

Voice out your inquiries to online medical professionals and you shall be provided with satisfying answers.

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How We Treat Cancer?

Interventional Therapy

Interventional Therapy is a new substitute of traditional chemotherapy, which means that a physician introduces instruments such as needles or catheters (long, thin tubes) into the body through tiny(1-2 mm) incisions in the skin. The instruments are then guided by an imaging technique called fluoroscopy to the cancer tumor. In this way, the physician can deliver cancer medicine directly to the tumor.more info

Cryotherapy Therapy

Cryotherapy Therapy, also known as “Argon-Helium Knife Cryotherapy”, is a new substitute of traditional physical therapy. Practically speaking it is “extreme cold + extreme heat” cancer treatment. Generally, a minimum of 10-15 minutes is required to achieve an extreme analgesic (pain relieving) effect while lowering the temperature to the injured area, thus reducing the metabolic rate and swelling associated with tissue injury.more info

Particle Knife

Particle Knife is a new substitute of traditional radiation therapy. With the help of computer Treatment Planning System (TPS), radioactive particles will be implanted into tumors. The particles which release γ-rays can continuously kill tumor and cause destruction targeting tumor cells. With time, the radiation amount would accumulate to be large enough to destroy the DNA double strands of tumor cells.more info


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Our medical team includes surgeons, radiology oncologists, medical oncologists, nurses, nutritionists, accompanied by interpreters and related health experts; we shall be dedicated to provide you a convenient and high-quality service.

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