What is cervical cancer?

Female reproductive system consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb) and the vagina.


Cervix is the neck of the womb, which is visible during a vaginal examination. Cervix is made up of millions of tiny cells. Sometimes, some pathological changes can occur to these cells without you knowing it. These changes, if left untreated, could develop into cervical cancer. Among which, the infection of the cervix with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. These abnormal cells are called intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). If left untreated, they may slowly become cancerous.

What are the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?

The main symptoms are:

  • Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Bad-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Irregular bleeding between periods or after menopause

Pre-cancerous and early stage of cervical cancer often comes without obvious symptoms. In this situation, cervical cancer is usually detected by routine vaginal examination and Pap smear.

Are you risky?

All women may have the risk of developing cervical cancer. Your risk increases if you are:

  • Sexually active;
  • Smoking;
  • Had multiple sexual partners;
  • Had a history of sexually transmitted infections, such as genital warts or genital herpes

How to prevent?

  • Reducing early sexual activity and the numbers of sexual partners;
  • To use condom during sexual intercourse as a form of protective measure;
  • To do regular Pap smear test;
  • Sexually active women above 25 years old are advised to have a Pap smear regularly. An initial smear is performed once a woman is sexually active and repeated after one year. After that, the Pap smear can be done once in one to three years as advised by the doctor.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

The following tests are important:

cervical cancer check

Pap smear About 1 in 10 Pap smears will show some changes in the cervix, but if these changes are not indicative of cancer. Further tests will be needed to confirm the findings. If you are a virgin, you do not need to do the Pap smear. However, please consult a doctor immediately if there is any unusual bleeding.

ColposcopyA colposcopy is an instrument use to examine the cervix with magnification.

Endocervical curettage A method applied with passing an instrument into the cervix to obtain tissue for microscopic examination.

Cone biopsyA large portion of the cervix is surgically removed for microscopic lab test. This procedure is performed under local anaesthesia.

How is cervical cancer treated?

Stage Treatment
I & II

The common treatments areopen surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, for those who can’t tolerate or do not want to take common sugery, the preferred treatment is minimally invasive treatment, including cryotherapy, interventional therapy, microwave ablation, combined therapy of chinese medicine and western medicine, etc for cervical cancer stage 1 or stage 2.


In cervical cancer stage 3, minimally invasive treatment can remove the cancer cells, and it only brings 2mm trauma, lesser side effects than chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Comprehensive treatment is better than the single treatment because cancer has spread to lymph nodes in middle of chest. Single treatment might not well meet patient’s need to kill the cancer cells to the greatest extent. Taking cryotherapy or microwave destroys the localized tumor in cervix and interventional therapy helps kills the residual cancer cells spread to other lymph nodes or organs.


In cervical cancer stage 4 , the tumor has spread to the other part of body (metastasis). Open surgery is not effective as a form of treatment. Rather, minimally invasive treatment becomes a good option. Cryotherapy, microwave, interventional therapy, nanoknife therapy is applicable to treat cervical cancer stage 4 and doctor team will first discuss patient’s condition and give a recommended treatment plan according to their physical condition, willing and other factors.

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If you still have questions about Cervical Cancer treatment, please click the following links or have online consultation with our experts to get detailed answers.

What are the treatment options for Cervical Cancer patients?

Which kind of treatment has fewer side effects?

Different treatment options for different stages of Cervical Cancer

Prevention and treatment for metastatic Cervical Cancer.

How to improve the survival time and living quality of Cervical Cancer patients?

Voice out your inquiries to online medical professionals and you shall be provided with satisfying answers.

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How We Treat Cancer?

Interventional Therapy

Interventional Therapy is a new substitute of traditional chemotherapy, which means that a physician introduces instruments such as needles or catheters (long, thin tubes) into the body through tiny(1-2 mm) incisions in the skin. The instruments are then guided by an imaging technique called fluoroscopy to the cancer tumor. In this way, the physician can deliver cancer medicine directly to the tumor.more info

Cryotherapy Therapy

Cryotherapy Therapy, also known as “Argon-Helium Knife Cryotherapy”, is a new substitute of traditional physical therapy. Practically speaking it is “extreme cold + extreme heat” cancer treatment. Generally, a minimum of 10-15 minutes is required to achieve an extreme analgesic (pain relieving) effect while lowering the temperature to the injured area, thus reducing the metabolic rate and swelling associated with tissue injury.more info

Particle Knife

Particle Knife is a new substitute of traditional radiation therapy. With the help of computer Treatment Planning System (TPS), radioactive particles will be implanted into tumors. The particles which release γ-rays can continuously kill tumor and cause destruction targeting tumor cells. With time, the radiation amount would accumulate to be large enough to destroy the DNA double strands of tumor cells.more info

Medical Team

Our medical team includes surgeons, radiology oncologists, medical oncologists, nurses, nutritionists, accompanied by interpreters and related health experts; we shall be dedicated to provide you a convenient and high-quality service.

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